International Journal of Modern Education and Computer Science (IJMECS)

ISSN: 2075-0161 (Print), ISSN: 2075-017X (Online)

Published By: MECS Press

IJMECS Vol.11, No.3, Mar. 2019

Design of Model Free Sliding Mode Controller based on BBO Algorithm for Heart Rate Pacemaker

Full Text (PDF, 1142KB), PP.31-37

Views:26   Downloads:4


Ekhlas H. Karam, Tariq Tashan, Eman F. Mohsin

Index Terms

Model free controller;SMC controller;BBO algorithm;heart rate (HR);pacemaker


A modified Model-Free Sliding Mode Controller (MF-SMC) scheme, which based on the Biogeography-Based Optimization (BBO) algorithm is suggested, to regulate the heart rate since it is difficult to derive a suitable model for the control algorithm, therefore the traditional control algorithm cannot perform efficiently. Also, a smoothing boundary layer is used to eliminate the chattering in the MF-SMC control signal. Results of simulation effort show that overshoot less and fast performance is achieved with stable convergence for the tracking regardless of the heart rate model to be controlled.

Cite This Paper

Ekhlas H. Karam, Tariq Tashan, Eman F. Mohsin, " Design of Model Free Sliding Mode Controller based on BBO Algorithm for Heart Rate Pacemaker", International Journal of Modern Education and Computer Science(IJMECS), Vol.11, No.3, pp. 31-37, 2019.DOI: 10.5815/ijmecs.2019.03.05


[1]Y. Okada, Yamashiro, and N. Ohmori, “Mixed Flow Artifial Heart Pump with Axial Self-Bearing Motor,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics, Vol.10, pp. 658-665, 2005.

[2]S. H. Park, and Lee, “Decoupled Control of a Disk-Type Rotor Equipped with a Three-Pole Hybrid Magnetic Bearing,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics, Vol. 15, pp. 793-804, 2010.

[3]K. R. Achu Govind, and R. Aravind Sekhar, “Design of a Novel PID Controller for Cardiac Pacemaker,” International Conference on Advances in Green Energy (ICAGE), IEEE, pp. 17-18 Dec. 2014. 

[4]Jyoti Yadav, Asha Rani, and Girisha Garg, “Intelligent Heart Rate Controller for Cardiac Pacemaker,” International Journal of Computer Applications, vol. 36, No.7, Dec. 2011. 

[5]Z. Jiang, M. Pajic, S. Moarref, R. Alur, and R. Mangharam, “Modeling and verification of a dual chamberimplantable pacemaker,” in Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems, pp. 188–203, Springer, 2012. 

[6]Aysan Esgandanian and Sabalan Daneshvar, “A Comparative Study on a Tilt-Integral-Derivative Controller with Proportional-Integral-Derivative Controller for a Pacemaker,” International Journal of Advanced Biotechnology and Research (IJBR), vol. 7, pp. 645-650, April 2016.

[7]D. Noble, “A modification of the Hodgkin–Huxley equations applicable to Purkinje fiber action and pacemaker potential,” Journal of Physiology. vol. 160, pp. 317–352, 1962.

[8]R. E. McAllister, D. Noble, and R. W. Tsien, “Reconstruction of the electrical activity of cardiac Purkinje fibers,” Journal of Physiology. vol. 251, pp. 1–59, 1975

[9]G. W. Beeler, and H. J. Reuter,  “Reconstruction of the action potential of ventricular myocardial fibers,” Journal of Physiology. vol. 268, pp.  177–210, 1977.

[10]Wei Vivien Shi and MengChu Zhou, “Optimal Single-Pulse for Pacemakers Based on a Sinoatrial Model,” IEEE Transactionson Mechatronics, vol. 18, No. 1, February 2013.

[11]K. Yanagihara, A. Noma, and H. Irisawa, “Reconstruction of sino-atrial node pacemaker potential based on voltage clamp experiments,” Japanese Journal of Physiology. vol. 30, pp. 841–857, 1980.

[12]J. Keener, and J. Sneyd, Mathematical Physiology, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1998.

[13]Hari Om Bansal, Rajneesh Kumar, Rohit Kumar Singh and Sachin Bhardwaj, “Design of an Intelligent PD Controller for Artificial Pacemaker,” 2nd International Conference on Power, Control and Embedded Systems, IEEE, 2012.

[14]Yu Chang, Bin Gao, and Kaiyun Gu, “A Model-Free Adaptive Control to a Blood Pump Based on Heart Rate,” ASAIO Journal, 2011.

[15]Agamemnon Crassidis and Arielle Mizov, “A Model-Free Control Algorithm Derived Using the Sliding Mode Control Method,” Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference of Control, Dynamic Systems, and Robotics Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, May 7-8, No. 166, 2015.

[16]Sanjoy Mondal, “Adaptive Second order Sliding Mode Control Strategies for uncertain Systems,” (Thesis), Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, INDIA, July, 2012.

[17]D. Simon, “Biogeography-based optimization,” IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, December 2008.

[18]Mohammed Salem and Mohamed Faycal Khelfi, “Application of Biogeography based optimization in tuning a PID controller for nonlinear systems,” IEEE, 2012.

[19]Haiping Ma, Dan Simon, Patrick Siarry, Zhile Yang, and Minrui Fei, “Biogeography-Based Optimization: A 10-Year Review,” IEEE Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computational Intelligence, Vol. 1, No. 5, OCTOBER 2017.

[20]R. Kalaivani and P. Lakshmi, “Biogeography-Based Optimization of PID Tuning Parameters for the Vibration Control of Active Suspension System,” CEAI, Vol.16, No.1 pp. 31-39, 2014.