International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing(IJIGSP)
ISSN: 2074-9074 (Print), ISSN: 2074-9082 (Online)
Published By: MECS Press
IJIGSP Vol.14, No.5, Oct. 2022
A Review on HEVC Video Forensic Investigation under Compressed Domain
Full Text (PDF, 795KB), PP.44-57
In recent years, video forensic investigation has become a prominent research area, due to the adverse effect of fake videos on networks, people and society. This paper summarizes all the existing methodologies used for forgery detection in H.265/HEVC videos. HEVC video forgery is generally classified into two categories as video quality forgery and video content forgery. The occurrence of various forgeries such as transcoding, fake-bitrate, inter-frame forgery and intra-frame forgery is deeply analyzed based on features extracted from the HEVC compression domain. The major findings of this research are (i) Less focus on transcoding detection, (ii) Non-availability of HEVC forged video dataset (iii) More focus on double compression detection for forgery detection, and (iv) Non-consideration of adaptive-GOP structure. The forgery detection in the video is critically important due to its wide use as the primary source of information in criminal investigations and proving the authenticity of contents. So, the forgery detection accuracy is of major concern at the present time. Although, various forgery detection methods are developed in past but the findings of this review point out the need of developing more effective detection methods with high accuracy.
Cite This Paper
Neetu Singla, Sushama Nagpal, Jyotsna Singh, " A Review on HEVC Video Forensic Investigation under Compressed Domain", International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing(IJIGSP), Vol.14, No.5, pp. 44-57, 2022. DOI:10.5815/ijigsp.2022.05.04
A. K. Jain, S. R. Sahoo and J. Kaubiyal, "Online social networks security and privacy: comprehensive review and analysis," Complex & Intelligent Systems, pp. 1-21, 2021.
K. K. Sindhu and B. B. Meshram, "Digital Forensic Investigation Tools and Procedures," International Journal of Computer Network and Information Security, vol. 4, pp. 39-48, 2012.
P. Johnston and E. Elyan, "A Review of Digital Video Tampering: From Simple Editing to Full Synthesis," Digital Investigation, vol. 29, March 2019.
F. F. Chamasemani and L. S. Affendey, "Systematic Review and Classification on Video Surveillance Systems," International Journal of Information Technology and Computer Science, vol. 5, pp. 87-102, 2013.
G. J. Sullivan and T. Wiegand, "Rate-distortion optimization for video compression," IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol. 15, pp. 74-90, 1998.
S. P. Jaiswal and S. V. Dhavale, "Video Forensics in Temporal Domain using Machine Learning Techniques," International Journal of Computer Network and Information Security, vol. 5, pp. 58-67, 2013.
X. H. Nguyen, Y. Hu, M. A. Amin, K. G. Hayat, V. T. Le and D. T. Truong, "Three-dimensional Region Forgery Detection and Localization in Videos," International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing, vol. 11, pp. 1-13, 2019.
S. Subbarayappa and K. Rao, "Overview and Extensions of the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) and Beyond (Versatile Video Coding)," December 2019.
G. J. Sullivan, J.-R. Ohm, W.-J. Han and T. Wiegand, "Overview of the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) Standard," IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 22, pp. 1649-1668, 2012.
A. Costanzo and M. Barni, "Detection of double AVC/HEVC encoding," in 2016 24th European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO), 2016.
O. Al-Sanjary, A. Ahmed and G. Sulong, "Development of a Video Tampering Dataset for Forensic Investigation," Forensic Science International, vol. 266, July 2016.
H. Kaur and N. Jindal, "Image and Video Forensics: A Critical Survey," Wireless Personal Communications, vol. 112, pp. 1281-1302, 2020.
N. Shelke and S. Singh Kasana, "A comprehensive survey on passive techniques for digital video forgery detection," Multimedia Tools and Applications, vol. 80, pp. 1-64, February 2021.
R. Singh and N. Aggarwal, "Video content authentication techniques: a comprehensive survey," Multimedia Systems, vol. 24, February 2017.
S. Bourouis, R. Alroobaea, A. Alharbi, M. Andejany and S. Rubaiee, "Recent Advances in Digital Multimedia Tampering Detection for Forensics Analysis," Symmetry, vol. 12, October 2020.
I.-K. Kim, J. Min, T. Lee and W.-J. Han, "Block Partitioning Structure in the HEVC Standard," Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 22, December 2012.
Gitlhevcanalyzer: Gitl hevc/h.265 analyzer based on qt. custom filters supported.
S. Jain, A. Fell and A. S. Motra, "A framework for video coding analyzer," in 2016 IEEE Annual India Conference (INDICON), 2016.
L. Xiaoyun, Z. Li, Y. Yang, Z. Zhang and Y. U. Zhang, "Detection of Double Compression for HEVC Videos with Fake Bitrate," IEEE Access, vol. PP, pp. 1-1, September 2018.
S. Bian, H. Li, T. Gu and A. C. Kot, "Exposing Video Compression History by Detecting Transcoded HEVC Videos from AVC Coding," Symmetry, vol. 11, p. 67, 2019.
Z. Zhang, C. Liu, Z. Li, L. Yu and H. Yan, "Detection of Transcoding from H.264/AVC to HEVC Based on CU and PU Partition Types," Symmetry, vol. 11, 2019.
X. Liang, Z. Li, Y. Yang, Z. Zhang and Y. Zhang, "Detection of Double Compression for HEVC Videos With Fake Bitrate," IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 53243-53253, 2018.
X. Liang, Z. Li, Z. Li and Z. Zhang, "Fake Bitrate Detection of HEVC Videos Based on Prediction Process," Symmetry, vol. 11, 2019.
S. Jia, Z. Xu, H. Wang, C. Feng and T. Wang, "Coarse-to-Fine Copy-Move Forgery Detection for Video Forensics," IEEE Access, vol. PP, pp. 1-1, March 2018.
S. M. Fadl, Q. Han and Q. Li, "Inter-frame forgery detection based on differential energy of residue," IET Image Process., vol. 13, pp. 522-528, 2019.
Q. Xu, T. Sun, X. Jiang and Y. Dong, "HEVC Double Compression Detection Based on SN-PUPM Feature," 2017.
X. Jiang, P. He, T. Sun and R. Wang, "Detection of Double Compressed HEVC Videos Using GOP-Based PU Type Statistics," IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 95364-95375, 2019.
Q. Wu, T. Sun, X. Jiang, K. Xu, Q. Xu and P. He, "HEVC Double Compression Detection with Non-Aligned GOP Structures Based on a Fusion Feature with Optical Flow and Prediction Units," in 2019 12th International Congress on Image and Signal Processing, BioMedical Engineering and Informatics (CISP-BMEI), 2019.
J. H. Hong, Y. Yoonmo and T. O. Byung, "Detection of Frame Deletion Using Convolutional Neural Network," Journal of Broadcast Engineering, vol. 23, p. 886–895, November 2018.
P. He, H. Li, H. Wang, S. Wang, X. Jiang and R. Zhang, "Frame-Wise Detection of Double HEVC Compression by Learning Deep Spatio-Temporal Representations in Compression Domain," IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, vol. 23, pp. 3179-3192, 2021.
P. He, H. Wang, R. Zhang and Y. Li, "A Two-Stage Cascaded Detection Scheme for Double HEVC Compression Based on Temporal Inconsistency," Security and Communication Networks, vol. 2021, p. 14, November 2021.
J. H. Hong, Y. Yang and B. T. Oh, "Detection of frame deletion in HEVC-Coded video in the compressed domain," Digit. Investig., vol. 30, pp. 23-31, 2019.
J. Rui-Shi, L. Zhao-Hong, Z. Zhen-Zhen and L. Dong-Dong, "Double hevc compression detection with the same qps based on the pu numbers,” ITM Web Conf., 7:02010, 2016.
A. A. Elrowayati, M. F. L. Abdullah, A. A. Manaf and A. S. Alfagi, "Tampering detection of double-compression with the same quantization parameter in HEVC video streams," in 2017 7th IEEE International Conference on Control System, Computing and Engineering (ICCSCE), 2017.
X. Jiang, Q. Xu, T. Sun, B. Li and P. He, "Detection of HEVC Double Compression With the Same Coding Parameters Based on Analysis of Intra Coding Quality Degradation Process," IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, vol. 15, pp. 250-263, 2020.
M. Huang, R. Wang, J. Xu, D. Xu and Q. Li, "Detection of Double Compression for HEVC Videos Based on the Co-occurrence Matrix of DCT Coefficients," in IWDW, 2015.
Q. Li, R. Wang and D. Xu, "Detection of double compression in HEVC videos based on TU size and quantised DCT coefficients," IET Inf. Secur., vol. 13, pp. 1-6, 2019.
Q. Fang, X. Jiang, T. Sun, Q. Xu and K. Xu, "Detection of HEVC Double Compression with Different Quantization Parameters Based on Property of DCT Coefficients and TUs," 2019 12th International Congress on Image and Signal Processing, BioMedical Engineering and Informatics (CISP-BMEI), pp. 1-6, 2019.